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Gramatica limbii engleze
poezie [ ]
Substantivul, articolul, adjectivul, adverbul, pronumele, verbul, timpurile, prepozitia.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
de [bad girl ]

2006-06-05  |     | 



Lecția 1: Substantivul

Bun venit la cursul de Gramatica Limbii Engleze !
1.1 Felul substantivelor
Substantivele în limba engleza se pot împarti în patru categorii:
• substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp
• substantive proprii: England, London, Mr Smith, Mary
• substantive abstracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy
• substantive colective: crowd, group, team
1.2. Genul
Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin:
Ex.: man, boy, lion, dog
Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin:
Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffe
Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este cunoscut (pronume: it/they):
Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby
Exceptii: tarile, navele, în majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul feminin.
Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. Substantivele care intra în aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe:
Ex.: child (copil, copila), cook (bucatar, bucatareasa), teacher (profesor, profesoara).
Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin:
Ex.: boy - girl, husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son - daughter, uncle - aunt, dog - bitch, bull - cow, king - queen
1.3. Numarul
Numarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai multe obiecte sau fiinte.
• Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog, girl, wife, world, storm
• Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular:
Ex.: cat+s=cats, day+s=days, world+s=worlds
• Pluralul substantivelor teminate în ch, o, sh, s, x se formeaza adaugând es la singular.
Ex.: church+es=churches, bush+es=bushes, class+es=classes, potato+es=potatoes, bush+es=bushes, box+es=boxes
1.3.1. Pluralul neregulat
• Substantive terminate în consoana+y fac pluralul în ies:
Ex.: company - companies, factory - factories, baby - babies
• Unele substantive terminate în o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s.
Ex.: soprano - sopranos, piano - pianos, photo - photos
• Unele substantive terminate în f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea în ves.
Ex.: leaf - leaves, half - halves, wife - wives, life - lives, self - selves, wolf - wolves
Exceptii: roof - roofs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, gulf - gulfs, wharf - wharfs/ wharves
• Câteva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interne
Ex.: foot - feet, man - men, tooth - teeth
• Pluralul substantivului child este children.
• Unele substantive ramân identice la plural Ex.: aircraft, deer, series, sheep, species, fish
1.3.2 Pluralul substantivelor compuse
• În cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvânt va trece la plural.
Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents
Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente.
Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants
• În cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie / adverb + substantiv, substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului.
Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on, runners-up
• Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s
Ex.: MPs (Members of Parliament), VIPs (very important persons)
1.4. Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns)
Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable) deoarece reprezinta fie unicate, obiecte puternic individualizate, notiuni abstracte.
• Nume de substante: bread, coffee, gold, paper, cloth, glass, oil, stone, wood
• Abstractiuni: earth, paradise, nature, the present, advice, death, help, information, news, beauty, experience, horror, knowledge, friendship, theory, literature
• Alte substantive: baggage, damage, shopping, reading, luggage, parking, weather
Substantivele unice sunt întotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular:
Ex.: This coffee is cold. The weather was dreadful.
Nu sunt precedate de a/an; pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some, any, no, a little, bit, piece of, slice of, etc.
Ex.: I do not want any help. I need some information. This slice of bread is hard. The piece of advice you gave me helped.
Nota: Multe dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara, astfel devenind substantive comune si comportându-se ca atare (primes a/an la singular, pot avea plural).
Sens Unic / Sens Comun
Her hair is black. (Parul ei este negru.)
She found a hair in the milk. (A gasit un fir de par în lapte.)
Their house was made of wood. (Casa lor este din lemn.)
We picnicked in the woods. (Am mers la picnic în padure.)
1.5. Forma posesiva
• Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina în s:
Ex.: a child's voice, the people's choice, a horse's mouth, women's clothes
• Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina în s.
Ex.: a boys' school, the Johnsons' residence
• Numele proprii terminate în s vor primi fie doar apostrof ('), fie 's
Ex.: Mr Jones's / Mr Jones' car, Yeats's / Yeats' poems
• În cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvânt va primi 's
Ex.: My father-in-law's guitar, Henry the Eighth's wives
• 's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri.
Ex.: The CEO's assistant, the PM's speech
• Forma posesiva se foloseste în general când vorbim de oameni, animale, tari. Se foloseste de asemenea în urmatoarele cazuri:
o În expresii temporale
Ex.: yesterday's newspaper, in five years' time, ten minutes' break
o În expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth
Ex.: ten dollars' worth of bananas, a shilling's worth of stamps
o În alte expresii uzuale:
Ex.: for heaven's sake, a winter's day, the water's edge, the plane's wings, the train's departure
• În cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv, este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci când sensul comunicarii este clar (magazine, birouri, oficii, casa, locuinta).
Ex.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's (office). The kids went to Bobby's (house).
• Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv. Aceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata.
Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the house
I took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and went to buy the book.
Exercitii!
1. Scrie femininul urmatoarelor substantive:
actor, driver, elephant, guide, son, bull, nephew, cousin, dog, waiter, camel, manager, uncle, lion, bachelor (burlac, absolvent), widower, assistant, host, snake, player, bridegroom, doctor, teacher.
2. Scrie pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:
knife, baby, child, country, aircraft, foot, key, kilo, woman, leaf, loaf, man, photo, piano, sheep, shelf, storey (palier, cat), story, thief, tooth, wife.
3. Rescrie urmatoarele constructii conform modelului:
The luggage belonging to the travelers - The traveler's luggage
The room belonging to the child -
The clothes belonging to the children -
The car belonging to Mr. Smith -
The luggage belonging to the VIP -
The flat belonging to her son-in-law -
The canteen used by the workers -
Important !
Vă rog să citiți cu atenție Ghidul studentului la adresa: http://www.academiaonline.ro/index.php/InfoCentru/Ghidul_Studentului,
special conceput pentru a răspunde tuturor întrebărilor noilor cursanți legate de modul de funcționare și de învățare în cadrul Academiei Online.
Discută și comentează împreună cu colegii și tutorul exercițiile fiecărei lecții și probleme de gramatică în spațiul Seminariilor Online. Nu uita că poți accesa doar lecțiile deschise săptămânal.



Lecția 2: Articolul

Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete înteles într-o propozitie oarecare, acesta trebuie sa fie însotit de un determinant substantival. Cel mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. Articolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza:
• Articolul hotarât - the
• Articolul nehotarât - a / an
• Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata)
Articolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba în functie de numarul sau genul substantivului si se aseaza în fata substantivului determinat.
2.1. Articolul hotarât (the)
Articolul hotarât se foloseste:
• Înaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat în contextul respectiv
Ex.: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose.
• Atunci când atât vorbitorul cât si ascultatorul cunosc notiunea exprimata de substantiv, desi nu a mai fost mentionat în context.
Ex.: - Where's the bathroom? - It's on the first floor.
• În propozitii sau fraze în care definim sau identificam anumite persoane sau obiecte:
Ex.: The man we met yesterday at the bus station. The girl in red is her neighbor.
• Referitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice:
Ex.: the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars
Ann is in the garden (the garden of this house).
• Înaintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale first, second, thirds, etc si only:
Ex.: the best day, the first week, the last chapter, the only way
• Înaintea unor adjective pentru a te referi în general la un grup de oameni care au în comun o anumita însusire (sunt frumosi, tineri, batrâni, japonezi, etc):
Ex.: the young, the beautiful, the old, the best, the Japanese, the British
• Nume de locuri geografice, oceane, râuri, mari, deserturi, munti, regiuni:
Ex.: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic
• Se foloseste înaintea unor nume proprii (muzee, institutii celebre, hoteluri, ziare, orchestre, grupuri muzicale, vapoare, nume de famili la plural,etc):
Ex.: the National Gallery, the Royal Shakespeare, the Savoy, the Beatles, the Spice Girls, the Guardian, the Telegraph, the Daily, the Titanic, the Tower of London, the House of Parliament, the Smiths
• Decade, secole, grupe de ani:
Ex.: My parents went to University in the seventies.
2.2. Articolul nehotarât (a / an)
Se foloseste a înaintea substantivelor care încep cu o consoana si an înaintea substantivelor care încep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u)
Ex.: a boy, an apple, a car, an orange, a house, an opera
Exceptii:
An înainte de un h mut - an hour, an honor.
A înainte de u sau eu atunci când se pronunta ca you: a European, a university, a unit
Articolul nehotarât se foloseste:
• Pentru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data:
Ex.: Would you like a drink? I've finally got a good job.
• Pentru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase:
Exemple:
o cu nume de profesii: John is an engineer. Mary is training to be a nurse.
o cu nationalitati si religii: John is an Englishman. Kate is a Catholic.
o cu instrumente muzicale: Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.
o cu numele zilelor: I was born on a Thursday.
o pentru a desemna un fel de, sau un exemplu de: The mouse had a tiny nose. It was a very strange car
o cu substantice la singular, dupa cuvinte cum ar fi what si such: What a bluff! He is such a prodigious young man.
o atunci când te referi la un singur obiect sau persoana, echivaleaza cu one: I'd like an orange and two lemons please. The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.
• Retineti ca se spune a hundred, a thousand, a million.
2.3. a / an si one
• Atunci când numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, greutatea, etc. se poate folosi fie a/an fie one pentru singular:
Ex.: a / one pound, a / one million pounds
You can take an/ one hour for lunch.
• Dar a/an si one nu înseamna întotdeauna acelasi lucru:
Ex.: A box is no good. (We need a crate not a box).
One box is no good, we need two boxes.
2.4. Articolul zero
Nu se foloseste articol în urmatoarele cazuri:
Cu nume de tari (la singular)
Ex.: Germany is an important economic power.
He's just returned from Argentina.
(Însa: I'm visiting the United States next week.)
• Cu numele limbilor:
Ex.: French is spoken in Tahiti.
English uses many words of Latin origin.
• Cu numele meselor:
Ex.: Lunch is at midday.
Dinner is in the evening.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day.
• Cu numele persoanelor (la singular):
Ex.: John's coming to the party.
George King is my uncle.
(Însa: We're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)
• Cu titluri si nume:
Ex.: Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.
(Însa: the Queen of England, the Pope.)
• Dupa cazul posesiv format cu 's:
Ex.: His sister's car.
Laura's basket.
• Cu numele profesiilor:
Ex.: Engineering is a useful career.
He'll probably go into medicine.
• Cu nume de magazine:
Ex.: I'll get the card at Smith's.
Can you go to Boots for me?
• Cu ani:
Ex.: 1948 was a wonderful year.
Do you remember 1995?
• Cu substantive unice (uncountable nouns):
Ex.: Milk is often added to tea in England.
War is destructive.
• Cu numele unor munti, lacuri si insule:
Ex.: Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
She lives near Lake Windermere.
Have you visited Long Island?
• Cu majoritatea numelor de strazi , orase, statii pentru mijloacele de transport si aeroporturi:
Ex.: Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
Can you direct me to Bond Street?
She lives in Florence.
They're flying from Heathrow.
• În unele expresii invariabile:
Ex.: by car, at school, at work, at University, in church, in prison, in bed, by train, by air, on foot, on holiday, on air (in broadcasting)
Exercitii!
1. Completeaza cu a sau an acolo unde este cazul:
Bill is ____ author. He writes ___ travel books. He makes ____ lot of money. We had ____ lunch with him yesterday. It was ____ excellent lunch. The meal cost him ____ hundred and ____ fifty pounds. What ____ expensive restaurant! He gave the waiter ____ twenty pounds. That was ____ good tip.
2. Alege a sau the:
One day we set out to climb (…) a/the highest hill in the area. The campers in (…) a/the next tent lent us their map. They told us to follow one of (…) a/the routes marked on (…) a/the map. But Tom said that he was sure that there was (…) a/the better way. (…) A/the way that we chose was so steep that we had to stop for (…) a/the long rest on the way up. But we got to (…) a/the top in (…) a/the end.
3. Completeaza cu the acolo unde este cazul:
We have ____ soup for ____supper. After ____ meal Tom and I play ____ chess. Bill prefers ____ cards. ____ game he likes best is bridge. He says that ____ chess requires ____ patience and he is not patient. He also says that ____life is too short to waste in this way.


Lecția 3: Adjectivul

3.1. Forma adjectivului
Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu îsi schimba forma în functie de gen sau numar.
Ex.: A hot potato, some hot potatoes.
Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really:
Ex.: A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.
3.2. Pozitia adjectivului
• De obicei adjectivul se aseaza în fata substantivului determinat:
Ex.: A good movie.
• Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:
Ex.: The movie is good.
You seem upset.
This cheese tastes different.
• Dupa substantiv în expresii fixe:
Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial
• Câteva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai în fata substantivului determinat:
Ex.: This is the main purpose of the meeting.
That poor woman was living in a garage.
• Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, ill, well, sorry
Ex.: He's asleep.
I'm alone.
• Unele adjective îsi schimba sensul în functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate în fata substantivului sau dupa acesta.
Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with the matter)
They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex)
I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious)
The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were there)
The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)
3.3. Functiile adjectivului
Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Adjectivele pot exprima:
• Sentimente sau calitati:
Ex.: They make an original couple.
She is a single mother.
• Nationalitatea sau originea:
Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian.
I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas.
• Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:
Ex.: The table is long.
The steel tray was a gift.
• Vârsta:
Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one.
He is still very young, almost a boy.
• Dimensiuni, marime si masuri:
Ex.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film.
That boy is too tall.
• Culoarea:
Ex.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt.
• Materie / material:
Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt.
It was a silver tray, not a steel tray.
• Forma:
Ex.: A rectangular envelope.
A round table.
• Judecati, pareri sau opinii:
Ex.: Grammar is fascinating.
The show was entertaining.
3.4. Ordinea adjectivelor
Atunci când se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material
Value/opinion delicious, lovely, charming
Size small, huge, tiny
Age/Temperature old, hot, young, little
Shape round, square, rectangular
Colour red, blonde, black
Origin Swedish, Victorian, Chinese
Material plastic, wooden, silver

Exemple:
a green round plastic bucket
an elegant little French clock
a small round wooden table
3.5. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor
3.5.1. Formarea comparativului si superlativului
Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv (înalt), comparativ (mai înalt), superlativ (cel mai înalt). În limba engleza, comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel:
Numar de silabe (Pozitiv) Comparativ Superlativ
o silaba + -er + -est
tall taller tallest
Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala:
fat fatter fattest
big bigger biggest
sad sadder saddest
doua silabe + -er SAU more + adj + -est SAU most + adj
+ Adjectivele terminate în: -y, -ly, -ow
+ Adjectivele terminate în: -le, -er sau -ure
+ Urmatoarele adjective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet
happy happier/ more happy happiest/ most happy
yellow yellower/ more yellow yellowest/ most yellow
simple simpler/ more simple simplest/ most simple
tender tenderer/ more tender tenderest/ most tender
Daca nu esti sigur, foloseste more + adj SAU most + adj.
Nota: Adjectivele terminate în -y ca de exemplu happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc. vor înlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma comparativa si superlativa:
busy busier busiest
trei sau mai multe silabe more + adj most + adj
important more important most important
expensive more expensive most expensive

Exemple:
a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest.
b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest.
c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable.
3.5.2. Forme neregulate
Urmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate:
Pozitiv Comparativ Superlativ
good better best
bad worse worst
little less least
old older / elder oldest / eldest
much / many more most
far further / farther furthest / farthest
3.5.3. Comparatia adjectivelor
• the + superlative
Ex.: This is the oldest theater in London.
• comparative + than - pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte, evenimente sau fiinte:
Ex.: He makes fewer mistakes than you do.
Thailand is sunnier than Norway.
Albert is more intelligent than Arthur.
• as + adjective + as - constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni, locuri, fiinte, evenimete sau obiecte, între care nu exista diferente:
Ex.: Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.
Ramona is as happy as Raphael.
A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.
• not as + adjective + as - putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia not so/as ...as:
Ex.: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest.
Norway is not as sunny as Thailand


Exercitii!
1. Scrie comparativul si superlativul urmatoarelor adjective: happy, brave, busy, clever, dry, bad, fat, many, beautiful, difficult, exciting, far, good.
2. Completeaza cu as, the sau than, dupa caz:
- What about this one?
- It's better ____ the one we saw in Harrods.
- It's bigger ____ the one in our local shop.
- But it's more expensive ____ the others.
- Do we want one ____ big ___ that?
- Yes, ____ bigger, ____ better. Let's buy it. It's ____ best we've seen so far.
3. Completeaza spatiile libere cu forma de comparativ sau superlativ a adjectivelor din paranteza (adauga si than acolo unde este cazul):
The 8 o'clock train is much (fast) ____ the 7.30 one. Of course it is (crowded) _____ the 7.30 train and the tickets are (expensive) _____. You get (cheap) _____ fares before 8 o'clock. Still, it's the (quick) _____ way of getting to Bath, unless you want to fly, and getting to the airport is much (difficult) ____ getting to the station.



Lecția 4: Adverbul

Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, când, cât de frecvent sau în ce măsura are loc o actiune.
4.1. Functia adverbelor
Astfel, adverbele determina în general verbe:
Ex.: The bus moved slowly. (cum?)
I am going home tomorrow. (când?)
Adverbele pot determina si adjective: You look absolutely fabulous!
Sau alte adverbe: She played the violin extremely well. You're speaking too quietly.
Sau chiar propozitii intregi: Perhaps we'll see you again next year.
4.2. Forma adverbelor
4.2.1. Adverbele se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea unui -ly la forma de singular a adjectivului:
Adjectiv Adverb
(Adjectiv + ly) Exemple
careful carefully He carefully picked up a tie.
quick quickly Time goes quickly.
slow slowly He walked slowly to the door.
Modificari ortografice:
• Daca adjectivul se termina in -y, acesta se va inlocui cu -i + -ly.
Ex.: easy - easily, angry - angrily, lucky - luckily
• Când avem un -le terminal (-able, -ible, -le), dispare -e si este inlocuit cu -y.
Ex.: probable - probably, terrible - terribly, gentle - gently
• Adjectivele terminate in -ic adauga -ally.
Ex.: basic - basically, economic - economically, tragic - tragically
Exceptie: public - publicly
• Forme neregulate
Ex.: true - truly, due - duly, whole - wholly
4.2.2. Unele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivele:
Ex.: early, fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, wrong
Compara:
This is a hard exercise. (adjectiv)
He works hard. (adverb)
We saw many high buildings. (adjectiv)
The bird flew high in the sky. (adverb)
4.2.3. Unor adjective le corespund doua forme adverbiale, care au sensuri diferite:
Adjectiv Forme adverbiale Exemple
deep 1. deep
2. deeply He looked deep into her eyes. (adanc)
She is deeply in love. (profund, pâna peste cap)
direct 1. direct
2. directly You can dial New York direct. (în mod direct)
He went there directly. (direct, fara întârziere)
first 1. first
2. firstly My mother came in first, then my brothers and sisters. (întâi)
Firstly, I would like to welcome you here. (în primul rând)
Alte exemple: hard, light, just, last, late, most, near, prett, right, round, short, wrong.
De retinut!
Well / Good
Well este adverbul care corespunde formei adjectivale good.
They are good swimmers.
They swim well.
She is a good pianist.
She plays the piano well.

4.3. Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor
Adverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca si adjectivele (vezi: 3.5. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor):
• Adauga -er pentru comparativ si -est pentru superlativ la adverbele dintr-o singura silaba: hard - harder - hardest
• Adauga more pentru comparativ si most pentru superlativ la adverbele formate din doua sau mai multe silabe si la cele terminate in -ly: seriously - more seriously - most seriously
• Unele adverbe au forme neregulate la comparativ si superlativ: badly - worse - worst, little - less - least, well - better - best, much - more - most
De retinut! Uneori most poate avea sensul de very:
We were most grateful for your help.
I am most impressed by this application.
4.4. Clasificarea adverbelor
1. Adverbe de mod
2. Adverbe de loc si directie
3. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa
4. Adverbe de probabilitate
5. Adverbe de grad
4.4.1. Adverbe de mod
Adverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza in propozitie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia.
Exemple:
He swims well. (dupa verb)
He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly.
She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively.
James coughed loudly to attract her attention.
He plays the flute beautifully. (dupa complement)
He ate the chocolate cake greedily.
De retinut!
1. Adverbul de mod nu se aseaza între verb si complement:
Incorect: He ate greedily the chocolate cake.
Corect: He ate the chocolate cake greedily.
2. Pozitia adverbului în propozitie este foarte importanta mai ales atunci când exista mai multe verbe în propozitie. Daca adverbul este asezat dupa o propozitie, atunci acesta modifica întregul sens exprimat în propozitie.
Observa diferentele de sens în functie de locul adverbului în propozitie:
He quietly asked me to leave the house. (= cererea lui a fost facuta în liniste)
He asked me to leave the house quietly. (= plecarea a fost facuta în liniste)

4.4.2. Adverbe de loc si directie
Ne arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau complementul sau.
Exemple:
Dupa verb:
I looked everywhere.
John looked ...away, up, down, around...
I'm going ...home, out, back...
Dupa complement:
They built a house nearby.
She took the child outside.
A. Here / there. Cu verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de înspre/ cu / împreuna cu vorbitorul, iar there contrariul, departe, fara participarea vorbitorului:
Ex.: Come here (= spre mine)
It's in here (= vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi)
Put it there (= departe de mine)
It's in there (= du-te singur sa vezi)
Expresii cu here/ there: down here, down there, over here, over there, under here, under there, up here, up there.
B. Adverbele de loc terminate în -wards - exprima ideea de miscare într-o anumita directie:
Ex.: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards, eastwards, westwards, homewards, onwards.
Cats don't usually walk backwards.
The ship sailed westwards.
De retinut! Towards este prepozitie, nu adverb, astfel încât va fi întotdeauna urmat de un substantiv sau pronume:
Ex.: He walked towards the car. She ran towards me.
C. Adverbe care exprima atât locul cât si directia: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors.
4.4.3. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa
Arata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii.
Ex.:
Când: today, yesterday, later, now, last year
Durata, pentru cât timp: all day, not long, for a while, since last year
Cât de frecvent: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly
De obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfârsitul propozitiei sau emfatic, la începutul ei:
Ex.: One of my children wrote to me yesterday.
Later the boy understood the story.
Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei:
Ex.: She stayed in the house all day.
My mother lived in France for a year.
De retinut! For este intotdeauna urmat de o expresie de durata: for three days, for a week, for several years, for two centuries.
Since este intotdeauna urmat expresia unui moment punctual în timp: since Monday, since 1997, since the last war.
Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have, may, must):
I often eat vegetarian food. (in fata verbului principal)
You must always fasten your seat belt. (dupa verbul auxiliar must)
I have never forgotten my first kiss. (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului principal forgotten)
Unele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la sfarsitul prepozitiei:
This magazine is published monthly.
He visits his mother once a week.
Adverbe de fecventa: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, often, regularly, sometimes, usually.
De retinut! Yet se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative:
Have you finished your work yet? No, not yet.
They haven't met him yet.
Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative.
I am still hungry.
Do you still work for the BBC?
Ordinea adverbelor de timp
Daca este nevoie de mai multe adverbe de timp in aceeasi propozitie ordinea lor va fi:
Ordinea Exemple
1: adverbe de durata
2: adverbe de frecventa
3: adverbe de timp 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day.
2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.
1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.
1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last year.
4.4.4. Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate
Acestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il relateaza: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely, maybe, obviously, perhaps, possibly, really. Se aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal.
Ex.: He has certainly forgotten the meeting.
Pentru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se aseaza în debutul frazei:
Ex.: Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.
De retinut! Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de adevarul unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you've got a bicycle?
4.4.5. Adverbe de grad
Aceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb, adjectiv sau adverb: almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.
Locul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina, fie in fata verbului principal:
Ex.: The water was extremely cold.
He was just leaving.
She has almost finished.
Enough, very, too
Enough inseamna "pana la punctul necesar pentru a..." si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb:
Is your coffee hot enough? (adjectiv)
He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)
Too = "mai mult decat este necesar pentru..." si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului:
This coffee is too hot. (adjective)
He works too hard. (adverb)
Very intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora:
The girl was very beautiful. (adjectiv)
He worked very quickly. (adverb)
De retinut! Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very:
Very exprima un fapt: He speaks very quickly.
Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).
Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, not especially, not particularly.


1. Alege adjectivul sau adverbul din paranteza pentru a completa corect fiecare pereche de propozitii:
a. It's an ___ question. You should be able to answer it quite ___. (easy/ easily)
b. I can type a bit but I'm very ___ . I'm afraid I can only type very ___. (slow/ slowly)
c. Mr Robbins shouted ___ at the children. The children made Mr Robbins very ___. (angry/ angrily)
d. Mary sang ___ at the concert last night. She sang a ____ song at the concert last night. (beautiful/ beautifully)
e. What was wrong with Bill? He looked very ___ . Bill shook his head ___. (sad/ sadly)
2. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu ago, since, sau for:
a. Columbus discovered America about six hundred years ___.
b. Ghana has been an independent country ___ 1957.
c. Russia has been a republic ___ over seventy years.
d. Oxford has been a center of learning ___ more than a thousand years.
e. Most British universities were founded less than fifty years ___.
3. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu: still, yet, already, any longer, any more.
a. John doesn't live in London ___ . He's moved to Bristol.
b. The children haven't gone to bed ___ . They're ___ watching television.
c. - Is Anne ___ here? - No, she has ___ left.
d. Becky hasn't gone to university ___. She's ____ at school.
e. Have you started your new job ___ or are you ___ working in London?
f. Thanks for your help. I won't trouble you ___.



Lecția 5: Pronumele

5.1. Functia pronumelui
Pronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Ele nu denumesc si nu caracterizeaza nimic, functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv, facand astfel referire la o idee, obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau cunoscuta de catre interlocutor.
Ex.: John did all the work.
He did all the work.
Who did all the work?
5.2. Forma pronumelui
Pronumele au forme specifice in functie de:
Numar: singular - this; plural - these
Caz: Nominativ - she; Genitiv - hers; Dativ - to her; Acuzativ - her
Gen: masculin - he; Feminin - she; neutru - it
Pronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many) sau compuse (everybody, whatever, no one).
5.3. Clasificarea pronumelor
Dupa continut si functie pronumele pot fi:
1. Personale
2. Reflexive
3. Nehotarate
4. Demonstrative
5. Relative
6. De întarire
7. Interogative
8. Reciproce
5.3.1. Pronumele personale
Nominativ Genitiv Dativ Acuzativ
Singular I mine (to) me me
you yours (to) you you
he his (to) him him
she hers (to) her her
it its (to) it it
Plural we ours (to) us us
you yours (to) you you
they theirs (to) them them


De retinut!
I se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula.
Its (pronume) nu are apostrof.
It's vine de la it is sau it has!


Forme arhaice si poetice: pers. II sg. - thou, thine, (to) thee

Exemplu!
I gave him the book.
He ran the London Marathon.
It's a pleasure to him.
I only played against her once.
These books are ours.
Is this pen yours or mine?



You / They impersonal - putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre oameni in general.
Ex.: You have to drive on the other side of the road in Great Britain.
They say she's very clever.
It - poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta:
It impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale, exprimand starea vremii, distante sau in contructii pasive)
Ex.: It's 7 o'clock.
It was spring.
Is it Monday?
How hot it is!
How far is it to the station?
It demostrativ
Ex.: Who is it? It's the postman.
It's the children.
5.3.2. Pronumele reflexive
Acestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana.
Forme:
Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.: I wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me.
She fell off the ladder and injured herself.
You can do these tasks by yourself or with a partner.
After five minutes, it will automatically turn itself down.
Let's buy ourselves a chair for the garden.
They built the house themselves.
5.3.3. Pronumele nehotarate
Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate: anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything.
No poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one.
De retinut!
Atat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana, pronumele nehotarate anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular.

Alte pronume nehotarate:
enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every, each, any, either, neither, none, some.
De retinut!
Daca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume, ci determinanti substantivali.
Ex.: Few will be chosen; fewer will finish.
Little is expected.
5.3.4. Pronumele demonstrativ
Pronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca pronume, cat si ca determinanti substantivali.
Ex.: That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw)
I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience)
Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made)
This si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala, pe cand that si those sugereaza ideea de departare.
Ex.: These (pancakes sitting here now on my plate) are delicious.
Those (pancakes that I had yesterday morning) were even better.
This (book in my hand) is well written; that (book that I'm pointing to, over there, on the table) is trash.
Aceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva:
Ex.: Are you going to wear these? (They are awful. I do not like them at all.)
Can you belive I would have bought that?
5.3.5. Pronumele relative
Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul aterior (antecedent) si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat.
Pronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that.
Ex.: The student who studies hardest usually does the best.
Alegerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale studentilor la limba engleza. In general, which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze, explicatii suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul frazei. Din acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in general intre virgule. Din contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule.
Who si formele sale se refera la persoane, which se refera la lucruri, iar that poate face referire la ambele.
Ex.: The man who hijacked the plane wanted to get to Cuba.
The couple who live next door have the radio on all night.
The team that won the championship received a great reception.
This is the program which won the prize.
We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell.
5.3.6. Pronumele de intarire
Insoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. Ca forma sunt identice cu pronumele reflexive:
Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.: I myself don't know the answer.
Mary did all this herself.
Mary herself did all this.
Expresii: by myself = singur, de unul singur
Ex.: I worked by myself.
Little Jane read the story by herself.
5.3.7. Pronumele interogativ
Pronumele interogative introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte.
Forme: who? what? which? whose? (to) whom?
Ex.: Who said that?
Whose are those books?
I do not remember to whom I gave my sweater.
What happened?
What's the weather like?
5.3.8. Pronumele reciproce
Forme: each other si one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre fiinte, idei, lucruri.
Ex.: If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas, we can say that they gave each other books.
My mother and I give each other a hard time.
They borrowed each other's ideas.
De retinut! Each other se refera la doua obiecte, pe cand one another face referire la mai mult de doua obiecte sau fiinte.
Ex.: The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment.
Hockey players hit one another quite frequently.
Exercitii!
1. Completeaza pronumele personale care lipsesc:
The other day when I was shopping a woman stopped _me_ and asked ___ the way to the post office. ___ gave her directions and ___ thanked ___ politely, then ran off quickly in the opposite direction. ___ put my hand in my pocket and found that my wallet was missing. ___ must have taken it while ___ were talking. ___ shouted and ran after ___ but ___ was no good. ___ had disapeared in the crowd.
2. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu pronume:
• I did it ___
• She gave ___ to ___
• We made the dinner ___
• They bought ___ in Singapore.
• My pen is blue; ___ is green. This pen is blue so it is ___
• I can't do this. Can ___ help me?
• Don't give your cats a bath. They wash ___
• He saved his money so that he could buy ... a bicycle.
• ___ knows some words in English like okay, hi and bye.
• ___ the students passed the exam.
• Can you tell ___ the time?
• It rained so ___ went for a walk.
3. Puzzle:
There are some books on a shelf. There a three big ones and two small ones. One of the big ones is red. There is a small green book. There are two green ones altogether and two blue ones. Only one of the small books is green.
Acum raspunde la urmatoarele intrebari:
3.1. - How many books are there altogether?
3.2. - What colour are the big books?
3.3. - What colour are the small ones?


Lecția 6: Verbul. Notiuni introductive.

Verbul exprima ideea existentei sau a actiunii intr-o propozitie.
Ex.: I am a student.
The students passed all their courses.
6.1. Cele 4 forme verbale
Terminatiile formelor din limba engleza sunt foarte usor de tinut minte. Exista 4 forme verbale de baza. Limba engleza formeaza timpurile verbale cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare, spre deosebire de limba romana, unde timpurile verbale se formeaza cu ajutorul desinentelor. De remarcat ca in limba engleza nu exista o forma verbala speciala pentru viitor.
Cele 4 forme verbale de baza sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme si cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare se formeaza timpurile in limba engleza:
Numele verbului Forma de baza Forma de trecut Participiul prezent Participiul trecut
to work I can work.
I work. I worked. I am working. I have worked.
to write I can write.
I write. I wroted. I am writing. I have written.

Cele mai frecvent folosite verbe neregulate
Urmatorul tabel reproducele cele mai frecvente verbe neregulate in patru forme verbale reprezentative:
• Forma de baza, adica infinitivul: to fly
• Persoana III singular a timpului prezent: he flies
• Persoana III singular a trecutului: he flew
• Participiul trecut: he has flown
Base Form Present Third Person Past Third Person Past Participle
arise
be
bear
begin
bite
blow
break
bring
buy
catch
choose
come
creep
dive
do
drag
draw
dream
drink
drive
drown
eat
fall
fight
fly
forget
forgive
freeze
get
give
go
grow
hang
hide
know
lay
lead
lie
light
lose
prove
ride
ring
rise
run
see
seek
set
shake
sing
sink
sit
speak
spring
steal
sting
strike
swear
swim
swing
take
tear
throw
uses
wake
wear
write arises
is
bears
begins
bites
blows
breaks
brings
buys
catches
chooses
comes
creeps
dives
does
drags
draws
dreams
drinks
drives
drowns
eats
falls
fights
flies
forgets
forgives
freezes
gets
gives
goes
grows
hangs
hides
knows
lays
leads
lies
lights
loses
proves
rides
rings
rises
runs
sees
seeks
sets
shakes
sings
sinks
sits
speaks
springs
steals
stings
strikes
swears
swims
swings
takes
tears
throws
used
wakes
wears
writes arose
was/were
bore
began
bit
blew
broke
brought
bought
caught
chose
came
crept
dived/dove
did
dragged
drew
dreamed/dreamt
drank
drove
drowned
ate
fell
fought
flew
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
grew
hung
hid
knew
laid
led
lay
lit
lost
proved
rode
rang
rose
ran
saw
sought
set
shook
sang
sank
sat
spoke
sprang
stole
stung
struck
swore
swam
swung
took
tore
threw
used
woke/waked
wore
wrote arisen
been
borne
begun
bitten/bit
blown
broken
brought
bought
caught
chosen
come
crept
dived
done
dragged
drawn
dreamt
drunk
driven
drowned
eaten
fallen
fought
flown
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
got/gotten
given
gone
grown
hung
hidden
known
laid
led
lain
lit
lost
proved/proven
ridden
rung
risen
run
seen
sought
set
shaken
sung
sunk
sat
spoken
sprung
stolen
stung
struck
sworn
swum
swung
taken
torn
thrown
used
woken/waked/woke
worn
written
6.2. Verbele auxiliare - be, have, do
Verbele auxiliare be, have, do se utilizeaza in formarea timpurilor verbale, a formelor negative si interogative.
Ex.: He is planning to get married soon.
I haven't seen Peter since last night.
Be, ca auxiliar, este folosit pentru a forma aspectul continuu, in combinatie cu participiul prezent.
Ex.: He is living in Germany.
Be, împreuna cu participiul trecut formeaza diateza pasiva
Ex.: These cars are made in Japan.
Have in combinatie cu participiul trecut formeaza timpurile perfecte.
Ex.: I have changed my mind.
I wish you had met Guy.
Prezentul perfect continuu, trecutul perfect continuu sunt formate cu ambele auxiliare be si have:
Ex.: He has been working very hard recently.
She did not know how long she had been lying there.
Be si have se folosesc de asemenea ca auxiliare pentru a forma propozitii negative si interogative cu timpurile continue si perfecte.
Ex.: He isn't going.
Hasn't she seen it yet?
Auxiliarul do se foloseste pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului sau trecutului simplu.
Ex.: He doesn't think he can come to the party.
Do you like her new haircut?
Auxiliarul do se poate folosi cu verbe principale: do, have.
Ex.: He didn't do his homework.
He doesn't have any money.
In propozitii afirmative, do se foloseste doar pentru evidentiere sau contrast.
Ex.: I do feel sorry for Roger.
De retinut!
Nu se foloseste niciodata auxiliarul do cu verbul to be.
Singura exceptie este imperativul:
Don't be stupid!
Do be a god boy and sit still!

6.3. Modul
Modul verbal se refera la una dintre cele trei atitudini pe care le poate avea un vorbitor fata de continutul mesajului exprimat.
Modul indicativ, prezent in majoritatea frazelor de pe aceasta pagina, se foloseste pentru a face o afirmatie sau a pune o intrebare.
Modul imperativ se foloseste pentru a da instructiuni, ordine, directive, sugestii cu caracter pronuntat.
Ex.: Get your homework done before you watch television tonight.
Please include cash payment with your order form. Get out of town!
Se observa ca nu exista nici un subiect in aceste propozitii. Pronumele you (singular sau plural) este subiectul implicit al propozitiilor imperative. Majoritatea propozitiilor imperative vor avea deci subiectul la persoana II.
Exceptie: constructie imperativa care include un subiect la persoana I
Ex.: Let's (or Let us) work on these things together.
Modul subjonctiv se foloseste in propozitiile subordonate in urmatoarele scopuri:
1. expresia unei dorinte;
2. fraze conditionale care incep cu if si exprima o conditie ireala
3. fraze introduse prin as if sau as though si descriu speculatii sau conditii ireale
4. fraze introduse prin that si care exprima cereri, sugestii, solicitari.
Ex.: She wishes her boyfriend were here.
If Juan were more aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player.
We would have passed if we had studied harder.
He acted as if he were guilty.
I requested that he be present at the hearing.
Subjonctivul nu este un mod important in limba engleza cum este in alte limbi, de exemplu in franceza sau spaniola. In multe situatii care in alte limbi cer subjonctivul, in limba engleza sunt folosite formele numeroaselor verbe auxiliarele.
6.4. Verbele frazale
O alta particularitate a limbii engleze o reprezinta verbele frazale. Verbele frazale sunt formate dintr-un verb si un alt cuvant, de obicei o prepozitie. Ele au luat nastere in vorbirea de zi cu zi.
Verbele frazale au sensuri mai greu de ghicit la prima vedere si pot avea mai multe astfel de intelesuri, de multe ori diferite. Te exemplu, to come out are 18 intelesuri diferite!
Verbele pot fi combinate cu propozitii sau alte cuvinte pentru a obtine noi entitati.
Ex.: stand out, stand up, stand in, stand off, stand by, stand fast, stand pat, stand down, stand against, stand for.
Mai mult, verbul si prepozitia sa par a nu avea nici o legatura in contextul respectiv
Ex.: Fill this out! Fill out this form. (a completa un formular)
Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon. (a jefui)
You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue. (a omite)
The lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness. (a examina)
O lista sumara a celor mai folosite verbe frazale, insotite de o scurta explicatie si un exemplu, poate fi gasita la: http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/phrasals.htm.


Exercitii!
1. Completeaza cu be sau have la formele verbale potrivite:
Swans ___ large birds - almost 4 feet tall. They ___ log necks. Some swans ___ very tame. They often come near people for food. Females usually ____ about six babies which are called cygnets. Cygnets ___ grey in colour and ___ very small wings but when they are fully grown they ___ large and strong wings and ___ white in colour. Swans can live to be 40.
2. Completeaza verbele frazale in propozitiile de mai jos:
hung up, came to, catch on, eat out, put on, talk over, get by, turned down, find out, show up
He tried to ____ his jacket before his tie was tied.
My family was able to ____on very little money when I was young.
The detective vowed to ____ who the murderer was before the case went to trial.
Whenever we get tired of cooking, we ___ at our favorite Italian restaurant.
Carlos ____ on his sister because he was so tired of listening to her whining on the phone.
Tashonda was astonished that she was ___ for the counselor's position.
The committee promised that the celebrity would ______ at the big event.
When he ___, his wallet and bike were nowhere to be found.
Professor Farbman promised to ___ the exam after she returned the results.
Terri was able to ___ to the most complex problems in calculus before anyone else.




Lecția 7: Timpurile verbale: prezentul simplu si continuu
Este foarte important sa intelegem utilizarea si sensul timpurilor in limba engleza. Multe dintre aceste forme verbale nu au corespondent in limba romana. Mai mult, sensul exprimat de formele verbale in limba engleza nu corespunde intotdeauna cu cel utilizat in limba romana.
7.1. Clasificarea timpurilor verbale
7.1.1. in functie de timp:
Prezentul:
1. Prezentul simplu
2. Prezentul continuu
3. Prezent perfect
4. Prezent perfect continuu
Trecutul:
5. Trecut simplu
6. Trecut continuu
7. Trecut perfect
8. Trecut perfect continuu
Viitorul:
9. Viitorul simplu
10. Viitorul continuu
11. Viitorul perfect
12. Viitorul perfect continuu
1. PREZENTUL SIMPLU
1.1. Forma
Prezentul simplu are forma de baza a verbului (write, work).
La persoana a III-a sg., forma de baza + -s (he writes, she works).
Ex.: I play, you play, we play, they play
He plays, she plays, it plays
Forma negativa se formeaza cu auxiliarul do:
Ex.: I do not drink tea.
She/he does not play football.
Forma interogativa:
Ex.: Do you work here?
Does she/he sing beautifully?
De retinut!
Forma prezentului simplu pentru you, persoana a II-a singular si plural, este identica.
Persoana a III-a singular a prezentului simplu adauga -s la sfarsit!


1.2. Functii:
Actiuni obisnuite, care se intampla in prezent sau in mod regulat, dar nu neaparat in momentul exact al vorbirii:
Ex.: Mina plays tennis every weekend.
The Post office opens at 9:45.
Adevaruri sau realitati general acceptate:
Ex.: Some vegetarians eat fish but they do not eat meat.
Winds carry weather balloons around the earth at the height of 24 kilometers.
Expresia opiniilor:
Ex.: I think Spain is beautiful.
They believe everything they read.
Expresie a preferintelor:
Ex.: Lisette likes cats and dogs, but she prefers cats.
Jim prefers maths to languages.
Se foloseste pentru a exprima asa numitul prezent istoric, facand astfel referire la actiuni care s-au intamplat de fapt in trecut.
Ex.: We were watching the back door when, all of a sudden, in walks Dierdre.
Dierdre tells me that she took her brother to the dentist.
Prezentul simplu poate avea valenta de viitor mai ales cu verbe ca: arrive, come, leave care sugereaza evenimente planuite sau programate:
Ex.: The train from Boston arrives this afternoon at two o'clock.
High tide is at 3:15 p.m. The Super Bowl starts at 6:15 p.m.
Expresii care semnaleaza frecvent actiunile obisnuite exprimate prin prezentul simplu:
all the time, always, every classe, every day, every holiday, every hour, every month, every semester, every week, every year, most of the time, never, often, rarely, sometimes, usually
1.3. Conjugare
singular I walk you walk he/she/it walks
plural we walk you walk they walk
singular I sleep you sleep he/she/it sleeps
plural we sleep you sleep they sleep
singular I am you are he/she/it is
plural we are you are they are

Exemple:
I walk to work every day.
The Chicago Bulls sometimes practice in this gymnasium.
Dr. Espinoza operates according to her own schedule.
Coach Calhoun recruits from countries outside the U.S.A.
2. PREZENTUL CONTINUU
2.1. Forma
Acest timp se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to be la prezent + forma de baza a verbului + -ing (participiu prezent).
Ex.: I am buying all my family's Christmas gifts early this year.
She is working through the holiday break.
Forma negativa - se adauga not dupa forma de prezent simplu a auxiliarului to be.
Ex.: It is not raining.
Forma interogativa se obtine prin inversiunea auxiliarului to be cu subiectul:
Ex.: Are they playing?
Is he eating?
2.2. Functii
Prezentul continuu indica: o actiune care se afla in plina desfasurare in momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: The phone is ringing. I can't answer it. I'm washing my hair.
It's raining so they have to stop the game.
O actiune care se afla in desfasurare in perioada prezenta, dar care poate nu se intampla concomitent cu momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: They are writing a new book.
She's studying English at the Language Center.
Descrie o tendinta sau actiune care a debutat recent:
Ex.: More and more people are starting to play golf in Malaysia.
Pentru a desemna o actiune care este planificata pentru viitor:
Ex.: To meet the demand for English language courses, they are planning to expand.
Mohan is leaving for London next week.
2.3. Verbele dinamice si statice
In general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se numesc verbe dinamice.
Aspectul continuu al unui verb arata ca o actiune este, era sau va fi in desfasurare. Formele verbale progresive (aspectul continuu) se folosesc numai in cazul verbelor dinamice, de miscare, care exprima calitati capabile de schimbare.
Nu se spune "He is being tall" sau "He is resembling his mother" sau "I am wanting spaghetti for dinner",
ci vom spune: "He is tall", "He resembles his mother", "I want spaghetti".
Tabelul urmator descrie in detaliu diferentele dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice:
VERBE DINAMICE
Verbe care exprima o activitate:
abandon, ask, beg, call, drink, eat, help, learn, listen, look at, play, rain, read, say, slice, throw, whisper, work, write
Ex.: I am begging you. I was learning French. They will be playing upstairs.
Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: I beg you. I learned French. They will play upstairs.
Verbe care exprima procese:
change, deteriorate, growmature, slow down, widen
Ex.: The corn is growing rapidly. Traffic is slowing down.
Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: The corn grows rapidly. Traffic slows down.
Verbe de perceptii senzoriale:
ache, feel, hurt, itch
Ex.: "I feel bad" si "I am feeling bad" au acelasi sens in acest caz.
Verbe care exprima actiuni tranzitive:
arrive, die, fall, land, leave, lose
Formele continue indica inceputul actiunii pe cand formele temporale simple, din contra.
Ex.: She was falling out of bed (when I caught her).
She falls out of bed every night.
Verbe exprimand actiuni momentane:
hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap
Formele continue indica durata scurta si sugereaza repetitia.
Ex.: She is hitting her brother.
He is jumping around the house.
VERBE STATICE
Verbe de perceptie, senzatie, activitate mentala:
abhor, adore, astonish, believe, desire, detest, dislike, doubt, feel, forgive, guess, hate, hear, imagine, impress, intend, know, like, love, mean, mind, perceive, please, prefer, presuppose, realize, recall, recognize, regard, remember, satisfy, see, smell, suppose, taste, think, understand, want, wish
Ex.: I detest rudabaga, si nu I am detesting rudabaga.
I prefer cinnamon toast, si nu I am preferring cinnamon toast.
Verbe de relatie si posesie:
be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, equal, fit, have, include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, require, resemble, seem, sound
Ex.: I am sick, si nu I am being sick.
I own ten acres of land, si nu I am owning ten acres.
My brother owes me ten dollars si nu My brother is owing me ten dollars.


De retinut!
Imaginati-va diferenta de inteles dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice prin prisma intentiei, cele statice exprimand calitati neintentionate, pe cand cele dinamice calitati intentionate:
Two plus two equals four.
Jane is leaving for Bucharest.
Equals este un verb static si nu poate lua o forma continua; nu exista optiune sau intentie in acest caz. Doi plus doi a fost si va fi intotdeauna egal cu patru.
Is leaving exprima optiunea si intentia subiectului de a efectua actiunea respectiva.



De retinut!
Verbul to have nu se foloseste niciodata in aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de "a suferi de":
I have flu. He has a fever.
Se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are intelesul de "a angaja pe cineva pentru o actiune":
I'm having my hair done on Wednesday.
They're having the house painted.
Have se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de "experienta":
I'm having a lot of problems with this task.
They're having trouble selling their house.


2.4. Conjugare
singular I am walking you are walking he/she/it is walking
plural we are walking you are walking they are walking
singular I am sleeping you are sleeping he/she/it is sleeping
plural we are sleeping you are sleeping they are sleeping
singular I am being you are being he/she/it is being
plural we are being you are being they are being

Exemple:
The summer is passing too quickly.
Raoul is acting like his father.
Some football players are not being good role models for youngsters.
Is he being good to you?


Exercitii!
Scrie 10 propozitii cu lucruri iti plac si inca zece cu cele care iti displac.
Exemplu: I like tea. In the morning I prefer coffee.










Lecția 8: Timpurile trecutului si viitorului

3. Trecutul simplu
3.1. Forma
Verbele regulate formeaza trecutul simplu prin adaugarea la forma de baza a verbului +-ed.
Ex.: scream > screamed, work > worked
Verbele neregulate au forme proprii de trecut.
Ex.: sleep > slept, drink > drank
Forma negativa se compune cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do, conjugat la trecut (did) + not in fata verbului principal. Did + not se folosesc des in forma contrasa didn't.
Ex.: I did not jump over.
She didn't finish the work.
Forma interogativa se formeaza prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul did si subiect:
Ex.: Did you want it?
Did it rain there?
3.2. Functii
Trecutul simplu se foloseste pentru a exprima fapte si realitati din trecut:
Ex.: In the past people believed that the earth was flat.
Descrie un eveniment sau actiune incheiata petrecuta in trecut:
Ex.: John Loud invented the ballpoint pen in 1888.
Pentru a descrie starea, conditia sau obiceiuri din trecut:
Ex.: I went to school by bus when I was a child.
3.3. Conjugare
singular I walked you walked he/she/it walked
plural we walked you walked they walked
singular I slept you slept he/she/it slept
plural we slept you slept they slept
singular I was you were he/she/it was
plural we were you were they were

Exemple: When I was a girl, I walked five miles to school every day.
Carmelita slept through the entire class.
We worked really hard to make this a success, but then Chuck ruined it with his carelessness.
Every time I finished a sandcastle, the waves came in and washed it away.
Tarzan dove into the swamp and swam toward the alligator.
4. Trecutul continuu
4.1. Forma
Trecutul continuu se formeaza cu ajutorul formei de trecut simplu a auxiliarului to be, was/were + forma participiului prezent (-ing) a verbului principal.
Ex.: I was singing.
You were talking.
Negativul:
Ex.: You were not / weren't singing.
She was not / wasn't reading.
Interogativul:
Ex.: Was I speaking clearly?
Were they playing the flute?
4.2. Functii
Trecutul continuu ca si prezentul continuu sunt forme verbale apartinand registrului oral, limbii vorbite cu precadere si sunt rar folosite in registrul scris.
Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. Deoarece indica o limita a duratei actiunii este foarte folosit pentru a indica actiuni care au avut loc (trecut simplu) in timp ce o alta actiune era in desfasurare, sau pentru a indica o actiune in desfasurare care este intrerupta de o alta.
Ex.: Carlos lost his watch while he was running.
I was watching Oprah when John came in screaming.
Exprima activitati din trecut:
Ex.: Once I was driving through Kenya with a friend.
Pentru a vorbi despre obiceiuri din trecut. Trecutul continuu este insotit in acest caz de always.
Ex.: Grace was always handing in late papers.
My father was always lecturing my brother.
In general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se numesc verbe dinamice. (vezi: 2.3. Verbe dinamice si verbe statice.)
4.3. Conjugare
singular I was walking you were walking he/she/it was walking
plural we were walking you were walking they were walking
singular I was sleeping you were sleeping he/she/it was sleeping
plural we were sleeping you were sleeping they were sleeping
singular I was being you were being he/she/it was being
plural we were being you were being they were being

Exemple: Dad was working in his garden all morning.
During the mid-50s, real estate speculators were buying all the swampland in Central Florida, and innocent people were investing all their money in bogus development projects.
Was he being good to you?
5. Viitorul
In mod paradoxal, limba engleza nu are o forma ca atare a viitorului, dar idee de viitor se poate exprima in nenumarate moduri.
• Will/ shall + infinitiv : He will be here at 5 o'clock.
• Be going to + infinitiv : She's going to buy a new computer.
• Prezentul continuu : The British Council is moving to a new building next year.
• Prezentul simplu : The train leaves at 7:15.
5.1. Forma
Cea mai frecvent folosita modalitate de a exprima o actiune viitoare este cu ajutorul lui will/ shall sau a formei contractate a acestora 'll.
Ex.: She will leave soon.
We shall overcome.
De retinut!
In engleza moderna forma shall este foarte putin utilizata.
Cea mai des folosita in Engleza vorbita si scrisa in registrul informal este forma 'll.

Negativul:
Ex.: I will not / won't finish.
Interogativul:
Ex.: Will you catch the ball?
5.2. Functii
Viitorul exprima preziceri ale actiunilo viitoare sau interogatii despre viitor.
Ex.: Computer technology will influence our future.
Decizii care tocmai s-au luat si care nu au fost planuite.
Ex.: I'll finish this report tomorrow.
Face promisiuni
Ex.: I'll phone you tomorrow.
Invita pe cineva la un eveniment, actiune
Ex.: Will you come to my house on Sunday?
Expresii:
To be about to = a fi pe punctul sa
Ex.: He is about to die.
To be + infinitiv = exprima ideea unor planuri pentru viitor, ordine sau conditii.
Ex.: There is to be an investigation into the mayor's business affairs.
You are to be back on the base by midnight.
5.3. Conjugare
singular I will walk you will walk he/she/it will walk
plural we will walk you will walk they will walk
singular I will sleep you will sleep he/she/it will sleep
plural we will sleep you will sleep they will sleep
singular I will be you will be he/she/it will be
plural we will be you will be they will be

Exemple: We will be victorious!
We shall overcome.
We are going to win this race.
The bus arrives at three this afternoon.
The boss is announcing his retirement at today's meeting.
6. Viitorul continuu
Will + be + participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului
Viitorul continuu indica o actiune continua, care va avea loc si se va desfasura la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: I will be running in next year's Boston Marathon.
Our campaign plans suggest that the President will be winning the southern vote by November.
By this time tomorrow night, I will be sleeping in my own bed.
Next fall, we will be enjoying all the vegetables we planted last spring.
Will we be spending too much money if we buy that big-screen TV?


Exercitii!
1. Completeaza cu forma corecta de trecut a verbelor din paranteze:
In 1929 the American astronomer Edwin Hubble _____ (make) a surprising discovery. He _____ (find) that all the galaxies were moving away from us and from each other very fast. This _____ (mean) that the whole universe was expanding like a balloon being blown up. He _______ (demonstrate) this with a balloon. He _____ (paint) spots on the balloon to represent the galaxies and then _____ (blow) it up. The spots _____ (grow) farther and farther apart.
2. Completeaza cu forma corecta a verbului din paranteze:
A fourteen-year-old boy _____ (leave) his home in Africa last month and ____ (go) to Britain. He _____ (leave) his family behind. His mother _____ (put) him on the plane. When he _____ (arrive) in London, he _____ (go) to a church hall in hackney, north London. After ten days he _____ (find) a relative and he _____ (move). He _____ (enter) a school and ______(start) English lessons.


Lecția 9: Timpurile cu aspect perfect

7. Prezentul perfect
7.1. Forma
Prezentul auxiliarului have (have/ has) + participiul trecut al verbului (regulat sau neregulat).
Ex.: You have worked hard.
She has taken her medicine.
Negativul:
Ex.: I haven't been to Spain.
I've (have) not seen this movie.
Interogativul:
Ex.: Have I met you before?
Have they built the house?
7.2. Functii
Prezentul perfect este una dintre particularitatile limbii engleze, acest timp neavand corespondent in limba romana.
De retinut!
Prezentul perfect este un timp apartinand prezentului. A fost asemanat cu un pod care face legatura dintre trecut si prezent. Dar accentul se pune pe momentul vorbirii, pe acum.


Prezentul perfect exprima o actiune incheiata sau "perfectata" in trecut si care se extinde pana in momentul prezent:
Ex.: I have walked two miles already (dar continui sa merg).
I have run the Boston Marathon (dar acest lucru s-a intamplat demult).
The critics have praised the film Saving Private Ryan since it came out (si continua sa il laude).
Actiuni sau evenimente din trecut care conduc pana in momentul prezent. In acest caz, folosirea timpului prezent perfect arata ca rezultatul evenimetului sau actiunii care apartine momentului prezent este cel care conteaza si nu momentul in care a avut loc actiunea.
Ex.: He has bought a new car (si acum au o masina noua).
They have been to Mexico but they have not been to South Africa (in consecinta, au cunostinte despre Mexic dar nu stiu prea multe despre Africa de Sud).
Obiceiuri sau evenimente si actiuni frecvente in decursul unei perioade de timp care conduc la momentul prezentului.
Ex.: She has studied English for four years (si inca mai studiaza engleza.)
Brazil has won the World Cup four times.
7.3. Adverbe
Alegerea intre prezentul perfect si trecutul simplu este de multe ori influentata si de adverbele care insotesc verbul. Daca adverbele respective se refera la o perioada trecuta, vom folosi trecutul simplu.
Ex.: I studied all night/yesterday/on Wednesday.
Cu adverbe care marcheaza un inceput in trecut si conduct pana la momentul prezentului, vom folosi prezentul perfect.
Ex.: I have studied up to now/lately/already.
Expresii adverbiale cum ar fi: today, this month, for an hour se pot folosi atat cu prezentul perfect cat si cu trecutul simplu.
Ex.: I worked/have worked hard today.
Exista tendinta de a folosi prezentul perfect pentru a anunta un eveniment din trecutul recent.
Ex.: The company's current CEO has lied repeatedly to her employees.
Dar vom folosi trecutul simplu pentru a relata sau anunta evenimente care au luat sfarsit si apartin trecutului indepartat.
Ex.: Washington encouraged his troops.
7.4. Conjugare
singular I have walked you have walked he/she/it has walked
plural we have walked you have walked they have walked
singular I have slept you have slept he/she/it have slept
plural we have slept you have slept they have slept
singular I have been you have been he/she/it has been
plural we have been you have been they have been

Exemple:
For five generations, members of my family have been doctors.
Vaughan has batted clean-up since he came to the Redsox.
She has swum the English Channel every summer.
How long has it been since the last time we met?
8. Prezent perfect continuu
8.1. Forma
Have/has + been + participiul prezent (-ing)
Ex.: I have been waiting for an hour.
Negativul:
Ex.: You haven't been talking too much.
Interogativul:
Ex.: Have they been feeling unwell?
8.2. Functii
Si aceasta forma verbala apartine timpului prezent si se raporteaza la momentul prezent.
Se foloseste pentru a descrie stari sau sentimente care au debutat in trecut si au continuat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp si sunt inca prezente pana in momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: It has been raining for two days (and it's still raining).
De retinut!
Diferenta dintre forma prezentului perfect si cea a prezentului perfect continuu este ca forma continua accentueaza durata actiunii sau a starii.


8.3. Conjugare
singular I have been walking you have been walking he/she/it has been walking
plural we have been walking you have been walking they have been walking
singular I have been sleeping you have been sleeping he/she/it has been sleeping
plural we have been sleeping you have been sleeping they have been sleeping
singular There is no present perfect progressive for the "to be" verb. "Have been being" is expressed simply as "have been": "We have been being successful in the past."
plural

Exemple:
Maria has been writing her dissertation for the last six years[, but she finished yesterday].
The Redsox have been losing games since the All-Star break [and they continue to do so].
Have we been telling the truth to consumers about tobacco?
Haven't we been lying to teenagers about smoking?
8.4. Folosirea adverbelor cu prezentul perfect
Exista cateva expresii adverbiale care se folosesc in mod frecvent cu formele prezentului perfect. Aceastea sunt: since, so far, ever, never, for, since, etc.
Ex.: There have been 92 accidents since the beginning of the year.
Have you ever been to Romania?
I have never seen a purple cow.
John has been working on his thesis for two years.
They haven't seen him since 1989.
De retinut!
For
- poate fi folosit atat cu trecutul simplu cat si cu formele perfecte (prezent, trecut, viitor perfect).
- are sensul de: in timpul, pe durata, pentru o perioada de timp.
Since
- se foloseste doar cu formele perfecte.
- are sensul de incepand de la un moment dat.


9. Trecutul perfect
9.1. Forma
Had + participiu trecut al verbului
Trecutul perfect indica faptul ca o actiune s-a incheiat, "perfectat" la un moment din trecut inainte ca un alt eveniment sa se produca.
Ex.: I had walked two miles by lunchtime.
I had run three other marathons before entering the Boston Marathon.
9.2. Conjugare
singular I had walked you had walked he/she/it had walked
plural we had walked you had walked they had walked
singular I had slept you had slept he/she/it had slept
plural we had slept you had slept they had slept
singular I had been you had been he/she/it had been
plural we had been you had been they had been

Exemple:
Prior to the Revolutionary War, Washington had been a surveyor and land speculator.
Aunt Glad had invested heavily in the air-conditioning industry before the Great Crash of 1988.
She had swum the English Channel every summer until 1997.
How long had it been since you saw each other?
10. Trecutul perfect continuu
Forma: Had + been + participiu prezent (-ing)
Acest timp indica o actiune continua care s-a incheiat la un moment dat din trecut.
Exemple:
Hemingway had been losing his self-confidence for years before the publication of Old Man and the Sea.
Had they been cheating on the exams before the school put monitors in the classroom?
11. Viitorul perfect
Forma: Will + have + participiul trecut al verbului
Viitorul perfect indica o actiune care va fi fost incheiata la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: I will have spent all my money by this time next year.
I will have run successfully in three marathons if I can finish this one.
By this time next week, I will have worked on this project for twenty days.
Before he sees his publisher, Charles will have finished four chapters in his new novel.
A Democratic president will have been in the White House for nearly half of the twentieth century.
How long will it have been since we were together?
12. Viitorul perfect continuu
Forma: Will + have + been + participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului
Acest timp indica a actiune continua care va fi incheiata la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: By the time he finishes this semester, Gesualdo will have been studying nothing but parasites for four years.
Will they have been testing these materials in the lab before we even get there?

Tema obligatorie!
Nessie surfaces again
The Nessie-spotting season has started again.
An American team yesterday claimed to have made two sightings of the Loch Ness monster and got them on video film.
Wildlife photographer Erik Beckjord, of the National Crypto Zoological Society of the US, said: "We got film of an object 15 to 20ft. long and about 250ft. out from the shore. The second sighting was two days later on Saturday at 1 pm when something stuck out of the water and went down again," Mr. Beckjord said.
Film-makers claim Nessie sightings
A team from the United States, which has been monitoring the surface of the Loch Ness with a video camera for the past week, believes it may have seen the monster on two occasions.
The first claimed sighting was towards the eastern end of the loch. The team says it saw an object obout 15ft. to 20ft. long crossing the waves and raising its "head" out of the water. The second, from a point over Urquhart Bay, much farther along the loch, was of an object about 30ft. long moving about three feet below the surface.
The team of two, from the National Crypto Zoological Society and led by Erik Beckjord, a wildlife photographer, has been scanning the surface from points along the shore with a camera capable of filming for 240 hours without a break.
Alege unul dintre următoarele trei roluri:
- fotograful Erik Beckjord, care încearcă să își apere punctul de vedere invocând dovezile adunate în sprijinul existenței Monstrului din Lock Ness,
- un localnic, sătul de toată tevatura pe marginea acestui monstru și care consideră că discuția este o pierdere de vreme,
- un ziarist independent, care este deschis ambelor puncte de vedere și le încurajează prin întrebări iscoditoare în vederea elaborării unui reportaj.
Construiește individual sau împreună cu echipa din care faci parte, o scurtă argumentație de aproximativ 150 de cuvinte pornind de la personajul și punctul de vedere ales.Trimite tema obligatorie tutorului cel mai târziu pana la data limita a testării online, afișata în contul fiecăruia. Nu uita să incluzi în mesajul tău numele și prenumele complet și numărul echipei din care faci parte. Calificativul primit la tema obligatorie împreună cu punctajul obținut la testul online vor constitui absolvirea cursului de Gramatica limbii engleze.
Atenție !
• Nu trimiteți atașamente. E recomandabil să compuneți textul în Word pentru a-l putea corecta cu ajutorul corectorului ortografic, dar vă rog să îl copiați în corpul mesajului vostru.
• Este obligatorie menționarea: numelui și prenumelui și a numărului corect al echipei în subiectul mesajului.
În lipsa acestor date temele voastre nu pot fi înregistrate în cataloage.
Multa baftă!


Lecția 10: Prepozitia

10.1. Introducere
Prepozitia descrie legatura dintre doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie. Prepozitiile nu au un inteles de sine statator, ele capata diferie sensuri puse in legatura cu alte cuvinte.
Sa observam catedra profesorului si multitudinea de prepozitii pe care le putem folosi pentru a o descrie:
You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk.
Cuvintele evidentiate sunt toate prepozitii.
De retinut!
In limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu o prepozitie.


10.2. Prepozitii de timp: at, on, in
At se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta
Ex.: The train is due at 12:15 p.m.
On indica zilele si datele calendaristice
Ex.: My brother is coming on Monday.
We're having a party on the Fourth of July.
In se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei, cat si luna, anotimpul, anul.
Ex.: She likes to jog in the morning.
It's too cold in winter to run outside.
He started the job in 1971.
He's going to quit in August.
10.2. Prepozitii de loc: at, on, in
At se foloseste cu adrese exacte.
Ex.: Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.
On desemneaza numele de strazi, sosele, bulevarde, alei, etc.
Ex.: Her house is on Boretz Road.
In se foloseste cu numele regiunilor (orase, judete, tari, state, continente).
Ex.: She lives in Durham.
Durham is in Windham County.
Windham County is in Connecticut.
Prepozitii de loc: in, at, on si lipsa prepozitiei
IN AT ON lipsa prepozitiei
(the) bed*
the bed
room
the car
(the) class*
the library*
school* class*
home
the library*
the office
school*
work the bed*
the ceiling
the floor
the horse
the plane
the train downstairs
downtown
inside
outside
upstairs
uptown
* In diverse circumstante se pot folosi prepozitii diferite pentru aceste locuri.

10.3. Prepozitii de miscare: to si lipsa prepozitiei
To se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea, miscarea catre un loc.
Ex.: They were driving to work together.
She's going to the dentist's office this morning.
Toward si towards exprima de asemenea miscarea.
Acestea doua sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot folosi indiferent.
Ex.: We're moving toward the light.
This is a big step towards the project's completion.
Cu urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, nu se folosesc prepozitii.
Ex.: Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home.
They both went outside.
10.4. Prepozitii de timp: for si since
For se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul (secunde, minute, ore, zile, luni, ani).
Ex.: He held his breath for seven minutes.
She's lived there for seven years.
The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.
Since se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta.
Ex.: He's worked here since 1970.
She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.
10.5. Prepozitii cu substantive, adjective si verbe
Numeroase substantive, adjective si mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai insotite de prepozitiile care le intregesc sensul.
SUBSTANTIVELE si PREPOZITIILE
approval of
awareness of
belief in
concern for
confusion about
desire for fondness for
grasp of
hatred of
hope for
interest in
love of need for
participation in
reason for
respect for
success in
understanding of
ADJECTIVELE si PREPOZITIILE
afraid of
angry at
aware of
capable of
careless about
familiar with fond of
happy about
interested in
jealous of
made of
married to proud of
similar to
sorry for
sure of
tired of
worried about
VERBELE si PREPOZITIILE
apologize for
ask about
ask for
belong to
bring up
care for
find out give up
grow up
look for
look forward to
look up
make up
pay for prepare for
study for
talk about
think about
trust in
work for
worry about


Combinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal (vezi 6.4.Verbe frazale).
10.6. Expresii idiomatice cu prepozitii
• agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle
• argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition
• compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities)
• correspond to a thing, with a person
• differ from an unlike thing, with a person
• live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people
10.7. Prepozitii inutile
In vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii acolo unde ele nu isi au rostul. Observa urmatoarele exemple:
Ex.: She met up with the new coach in the hallway.
The book fell off of the desk.
He threw the book out of the window.
She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. (sau folositi "in")
Where did they go to?
Put the lamp in back of the couch. (se va folosi "behind")
Where is your college at?

Exercitii!
1. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu at, in sau on:
They live ___ in Coronation Street ___ number 32.
Jack works ___ Oxford ___ the University.
I've left my briefcase ___ the office. I think I left it ___ the chair ___the corner.
Meet me ___ the bus-stop ___ the end of Bristol Road.
They live ___ Seal, a small village ___ the road to Folkestone.
2. Completeaza urmatorul text cu prepozitiile care lipsesc:
It was ___ the evening ____ Friday 29th March ___ Tribeca, New York. Police patrolman Swaine and assistant patrolman Bradley were driving ___ 3rd Avenue. Swaine stopped the patrol car, which was new and shinning, ___ an electrical store. He needed some batteries. He got ___ and went ___ the store; but he left the keys ___ the car because Bradley stayed ___ the car. Swaine looked ___ the street. It was crowded ___ early evening shoppers. It was brightly lit and lively.
3. Tradu pasajul de mai sus in limba romana.





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